• Second Semester - Rooms - Week 1: Sentinel

    Par Alex O, Alexandre, 27/02/16
    Image Sun Feb 28 2016 14:59:22 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    A centrally placed room in the protostructure with the sole purpose of observation, similar to the program of a panopticon. Surveillance that is visible both ways, visible to the outside and to the users of the other parts of the protostructure. This observational element is inspired by the window frames of both our Double Element projects.

    Image Sat Feb 27 2016 16:33:49 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Panopticon prison

    In our Double Element projects (both bed-window), the importance of modifying the view of the element user was apparent. In one case, the user was forced to look in a single direction through a thick and heavy window. In the other case, the user could modify the position of two windows to ensure constant, unobstructed surveillance of two specific areas. In (almost) every observational case, the eye of the observer is used. We therefore thought about a general observation state which englobes all specific forms of observation varying from security to observatories, microscopy, photography, etc. The main idea that came from such a train of thought is the creation of a room that is the organ that observes - an eye.


    The first thing that comes to mind is a giant floating eye, or some sort of monster with a single eye in the center of its forehead, as it is written in mythological texts. There are of course several examples of such beings, ranging from modern videogames, to old pre-historic texts. There is however a difficulty in articulating a room generated by such an idea.

    Image Sat Feb 27 2016 16:33:49 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    The Monoculus from the videogame "Team Fortress 2" & An ancient Irish festival


    A possible articulation would be to analyze the human eye and "disassemble" it into various components. The optical construction found within the human eye is essentially an apochromatic triplet meaning that there are three optical elements. In our first model, we therefore made three window frames to constitute these three elements. Of course, the eye can turn around so there is a pivot point implemented in the sketch model.

    Image Sat Feb 27 2016 16:33:49 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    "The light entering the eye first passes through the cornea (refractive index n~1.38), ~0.5mm thin negative meniscus of ~7.8/6.5mm radii. Anterior chamber, between cornea and the eye lens is filled with aqueous humour, watery fluid with n~1.33. [...] The eye lens is bi-convex, made of thousands of roughly concentric layers, with refractive index from ~1.38 in the center to ~1.41 at the edges."

    Image Sun Feb 28 2016 18:09:29 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
    Image Sun Feb 28 2016 18:09:29 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Feb 28 2016 18:09:29 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)


    This evidently isn't a room. In fact, it would be a pretty good Double Element project. Not only that, but a monoculus cannot ensure full 360 degree observation. There is however another kind of eye: the insect eye. For every photosensitive cell, there is a microlens. Such a system allows for much larger viewing angles, and the geometric shape is a great base for shaping a unique room. The second sketch model demonstrates this divulgation.

    Image Sat Feb 27 2016 16:32:10 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)


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    Image Mon Feb 29 2016 09:38:32 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)


    DRAWINGS OF THE PROTOSTRUCTURE


    Plan view with vision angles studyImage Sun Mar 06 2016 20:06:53 GMT+0100 (Paris, Madrid)


    Cut and elevation with proportions study of the protostructure

    Image Sun Mar 06 2016 20:06:53 GMT+0100 (Paris, Madrid)Image Sun Mar 06 2016 20:06:53 GMT+0100 (Paris, Madrid)


  • Planes - Form

    Par Alex O, 14/12/15

    Concept: 

    The creation of a hidden and marginal space, based on the blank hybrid of the Measures project, either via obstructive elements, apparent decomposition, or via camouflaging. Separation into three planes based on altitude differences (Sub-Lausanne, Lausanne-Surface, Supra-Lausanne). Rotation of these three planes to create three positions, similar to the Double Element.

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    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:36:45 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:36:45 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:36:45 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:36:45 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:36:45 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
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    Research drawings

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    Monge of the three planes

  • Week 14 - Planes - The Third and Final Plane

    Par Alex O, 13/12/15

    The third plane, the Supra-Lausanne plane, is quite similar to the very first plane in both design and in use of material but emphasizes on an instancing-based decomposition (and re-composition) of the Paris facade. This plane constitutes the final two floors of the apartment building. The decomposition is quite simple and varies minimally. The height of each facade piece is adjusted based on angle of view and distance from viewer. The clearly uninhabitable space that can be seen from the sides is a direct translation of the effect of not being able to see what is inside the building, especially near the top. In this sense, the third plane is similar to a Potemkin village.

    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:29:55 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Monge of the third plane in 1:33 - added elevation of the top-right sub-plane as it could not be seen in any of the other elevations.

    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:14:19 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
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    Of course, the whole column was built:

    Image Mon Dec 14 2015 16:35:35 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
  • Week 13 - Planes - Corrupted space

    Par Alex O, 06/12/15

    "I wonder what would look similar to generic camouflage but doesn't require the creation of an actual camouflage..."

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 20:24:42 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Data corruption

    For a better understanding of the possibilities of camouflaging, a short historical study was required. In the First World War, a very special camouflage was developed in hopes of protecting civilian boats and battleships. Such large objects can be seen from several kilometers away on the flat, uniform horizon. Therefore the camouflage that was developped was not used to conceal, but to confuse. This is called "dazzle camouflage".

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 20:27:10 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 20:35:35 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Edward Alexander Wadsworth - inventor of dazzle camouflage - painting his own motif after the war

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 20:47:11 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 20:47:11 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Test render of dazzle camouflage ¦ Man Ray - "The Third Shelf"

    The dazzle camouflage is characterised by a linear composition destined to play with the human eye, rendering the measure of distance, direction, and speed nearly impossible. In this sense, the camouflage played a large role in influencing cubists like Picasso, and of course the Op-art movement, followed by kinetic art. 

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:03:00 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:08:22 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Jesús Rafael Soto - op and kinetic artist

    Continuing on in time, the appearence of what is known as the "modern" camouflage graces the battlefields - with the help of artists of course. An important figure in the development of modern camouflage was László Moholy-Nagy, a professor of the Bauhaus school, who moved to the United States after the uprising of nazism in Germany. His main work consisted in designing camouflage systems for cylindrical objects, gas tanks, silos, etc. Unlike the First World War, confusing the enemy with optical illusions was no longer possible. Therefore, the newly developped camouflage methods were of the concealing type, designed specifically to imitate unorganized nature. There are therefore no linear repetitions like the dazzle camouflage. Any appearence of repetition in the in the design would most probably result in immediate detection due to how the eye functions.

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:30:53 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    László Moholy-Nagy on camouflaging cylinders ¦ modern camouflage design ¦ aberrations of the human eye

    Over the years, several military organisations have attempted to produce an even more sophisticated camouflage than the one seen in almost every war movie (the kidney-shaped blots of dark green). Most, if not all, have come up with "digital" camouflage. This camouflage, as stated in the name, has square, pixel-like patches that are computer generated based on "true" fractal designs. Normally, such pixel-like patches should not be able to function as such forms do not exist in shrubery. Luckily, the human eye (see image on the right) is far from perfect, causing deformation of the micro and macropatterns on the camouflage, creating an organic form by itself. It should be noted that fractal designs are an excellent example of graphical instancing as the same motif is repeated indefinitely, which can therefore be optimized by re-using drawcalls.


    So how does this affect my project?


    It started with how I could camouflage the middle plane, the Lausanne-Surface plane. If I were to continue the construction of the Sub-Lausanne plane, I would have the facade of the Paris apartment building, but the based on the hybrid, there should not be anything. Therefore how do I effectively camouflage such an imposing facade? Applying a generic digital camouflage would be uninteresting, and making my own camouflage manually would be far too time consuming. I decided to find what would ressemble camouflage generic camouflage without exactly being camouflage. I decided to use image data corruption, a tool that I have used for many years on my own photography to create artworks. I therefore iteratively corrupted a scan of the haussmannian facade:

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:58:42 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:58:42 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 21:58:42 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
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    I then took the last two and converted them to black and white:

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:04:27 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:04:27 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    I immediately asked myself how such a thing would look like in a 3D environment, and of course, how I would be able to put such a thing together to create an actual space on the column. In such a case, my knowledge of 3D modeling was extremely useful to quickly test several combinations. I decided to test the most simple form possible - the cube - to evaluate the texture possibilites of the "corrupted camouflages".

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:07:46 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:07:46 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    After initial testing, I concluded that having two layers, even if the second one is nearly invisible, adds a somewhat important depth to the cube, and that the form of the cube itself should be modified to conform to at least one of the previously implemented design languages. So back it was to the iterative image corruption, this time to base the design of the cube on a recurring pattern.

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    Cube in elevation.

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    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:19:28 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)
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    Where should I stop?

    There is an evident displacement of the cube towards the left, creating a mostly uniform oblique directional line, similar to a first degree function's slope. To normalize this displacement, the cube was separated into three parts of 6.03[cm] each, in correspondance to the height of the prevously designed Sub-Lausanne plane - three floors in 1:1 scale. the displacement distance was also simplified to a single value of n=2[cm] (this is subject to changes during the construction of the project). Finally, the displacement was integrated in 2 axes - x and y - to ensure a non-frontal design. I also developped a construction method to directly translate the corrupted digital images into physical surfaces without deformation by the organic nature of hand constructed shapes.

    Image Sun Dec 06 2015 22:25:32 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Lausanne-Surface plane

    This plane symbolizes the corrupt spaces present both in Lausanne and Paris but ignored and hidden from the masses. It's a marginal space englobing all the questionable natures of cities. Every person has knowledge of the existence of said space but not of the exact content of the space. The facades are therefore opaque, leaving only tiny spaces to see inside, to see what truly lies within.

    "There evidentally isn't anything."

  • Week 12 - Planes - Camouflaging

    Par Alex O, 29/11/15

    Initially, I was planning to design a container to ensure a closed-off space in which I chose the viewing angle of the plane(s). This idea was decidedly too obstructive so instead, the idea of a "correct" viewing angle was adapted to an open plane. In anticipation of the inclusion of the "+" column in the design process, three planes were chosen to be placed on the column: Sub-Lausanne, Lausanne-Surface, Supra-Lausanne. This decision is based on the characteristics of the site(s) - Paris starts at a lower point than Lausanne spatially (this includes aligning), hence the Sub-Lausanne plane. The Lausanne-Surface plane is an adaptation of the flat street found on the site, and the Supra-Lausanne plane is the continuation of the Paris site, emerging from Lausanne's "grasp". 

    Image Sun Nov 29 2015 21:13:17 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)Image Sun Nov 29 2015 21:32:49 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    To speed up work, I decided to finalize the design of at least one plane. In this case, the Sub-Lausanne plane. In this plane, visual disorganization via the process pseudo-random placement of repetitive elements was used to "hide" the view of a part of the Paris facade. Correctly positioning the eye is supposed to reveal a mostly uniform wall in which this facade will reside. A quick visual render test demonstrates this (focal length=42mm):

    Image Sun Nov 29 2015 21:48:01 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)


    The Monge of the plane:

    Image Sun Nov 29 2015 21:54:38 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)


    For the primary plane, the Lausanne-Surface plane, an extrusion was required due to the actual site being flat. As the height of  the "+" column is significantly higher than the highest point of any of the real sites (74.58[m] vs ~20[m] in 1:1 scale), I decided that all items on the primary plane are to be extruded in a normalized fashion to adapt to this substantial height difference. Therefore, all elements are extruded 373%. Now all that is left to do is to choose a base height. To ensure parity with the instancing idea, the default height of the primary plane elements is the total height (rounded down) of the Sub-Lausanne plane: 6[cm]. In this case, merely hiding the plane would simply not be possible. Therefore, the use of camouflage, a tried and tested method for hiding objects and people would seem to be a possibility...

    Image Sun Nov 29 2015 22:10:01 GMT+0100 (W. Europe Standard Time)

    Study drawing of the Lausanne-Surface plane